“Time will be the fire we burn in.” And even though we might be unable to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempt to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows into a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance turns into a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The inner environment of Cryogenic storage Dewar is really a world apart, a reminder of your ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe in the eons ahead.
For individuals who attempt to discover truths in regards to the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of energy is a concern of significant proportions. Scientists are often interested in very specific cell properties that happen at critical junctions inside the life of a cell. Holding these processes under control while their properties can be exploited is similar to the issue of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as you strategy to the trouble in the slow burn. By reducing the temperatures of samples for the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature where all metabolic activity involves a halt, scientists are able to seclude moments with time, returning repeatedly to analyze that instant in history.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics has become a significant industry that makes customized products for up to every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the marketplace in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, storage containers, and dewars in each and every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such numerous products from which to choose understanding of which ones are most efficient may elude the typical consumer. So that you can provide an introduction to the major producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will likely be profiled in this article.
Ultra-low lab freezers are some of those items that most people never consider until they quit working. Made to run for several years without interruption in service, lab freezers would be the quiet sentinels from the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch on the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists try to avoid the idea of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory of the day when it did. A career’s amount of samples might be lost in one afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the floor. Although such a scenario looms ominously in the periphery of every researcher’s consciousness, few are prepared for the entire day if it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to ensure power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company which utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in the refrigerators. Although the gas industry provides this procedure for many years, MMR Technologies was the first company to patent the technology and adapt it for small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
The way the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact that a combination of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is also permitted to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, and the cool gas passes back up the warmth exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. Several liquid-vapor separators might be incorporated within the cycle in order that the expansion of the liquid may be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 can be a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and body parts. The system allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and furthermore, as they have an internal power supply it can be used for your transportation of samples from storage facility to examine laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the requirement for controlled temperature ramping.
“As a user you want to be aware of minimum temperature and how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes sure that uniform temperatures are already maintained through the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures as a result of -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages might be preserved for long periods. Locking lids are provided in order to protect samples from accidental contact with ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are of help for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits most of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The high temperature-conducting quality with this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to work longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of holding samples beneath the crystallization point.
In line with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also works with a special blend of azeotropic gases which are non-flammable and let on-site recycling. Furthermore, a built-in timer cycles the low stage compressor every one day, turning it well so that the capillary tubing will be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. carries a long tradition of earning ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. The truth is, with 40 years of experience under its belt, So-Low is amongst the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the business. If the Montreal Protocol started the phase out from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was among the first to utilize Dupont Suva 95, the newest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler and with less pressure than CFCs. Along with its investigation of environmentally friendly refrigerants, So-Low has also developed a revolutionary compressor which is designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units as an option to the typical cylindrical containers. All these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide comfortable access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, and a storage system adjusts to fit a selection of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is one of the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with more than half a century of experience in the industry. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be purchased in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions on the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. It also carries a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from the evaporating coils.
Sanyo is manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for more than two decades, beginning with its creation of the very first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the development of the initial -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the very first manufacturer to provide a complete variety of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers available today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for use in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The word dewar, originally put on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is already put on a variety of insulated vessels created for upkeep of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on the floor or sit on tabletops where samples can be simply accessed. Due to quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures so long as 1 year without getting regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The standard thermal wall is made up of an aluminum or steel sandwich full of polyurethane. The size and style and configuration of dewars vary to such an extent that numerous companies build custom dewars to acquire. A number of these companies in addition to their products are reviewed inside the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE makes laboratory freezers for a wide variety of applications. Of course, animal breeders are just a small portion of its customers. Blood and cell storage in addition to organ shipment are an equally large element of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing part of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the initial company to produce biological freezers effective at maintaining a -190°C environment to get a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since this time MVE has released the complete type of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling as many as 36,000 vials at temperatures as little as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are fitted to cells that could be stored at -125°C but may become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers can also be a good choice for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate in a liquid medium, for example contaminated-blood bags that are liable to break open.
Quantum Technology is really a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the usa and Germany. Its product line includes anything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
Based on Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a great way his company has was able to remain competitive is as simple as offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is simply because they can be customized.
Among Quantum Technology’s most in-demand products is actually a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is merely $4 or $5 per liter, in numerous countries outside of The United States and Europe, the expense of purchasing helium is an issue of concern. That is amongst the factors why Quantum Technology makes an efficient two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator where the helium is retained in the system. The helium with this refrigerator is reliquified for usage again and again.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, supplies a Thermo-Flask brand of items that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless-steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and every one of these models can be obtained having a 24-month warranty. Other special highlights of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to supply coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which can be distributed by several companies throughout the United States. The Bio-Cane systems can be purchased in five sizes and offer features such as super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be bought in four sizes and also have capacities as high as 6,000 vials. As well as some of the standard features found in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks with a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, and an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates connection with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes various traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made from borosilicate glass protected by a protective mesh, as well as every wide-mouth model includes a vented polyethylene stopper to lower evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can be jacketed in aluminum casing for additional safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are designed for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times above fourteen days. All of these units come designed with a low-evaporation stopper, a totally shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Options for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International definitely makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to store large quantities of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by its own inventory control system, which is designed to maximize the quantity of vials that may be safely arranged in a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials may be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are some of the mostly used and least considered implements from the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out some day. Then it is time to go shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is often guided by three primary issues, the 1st in which concerns the issue of whether they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials propose that material is trapped throughout the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of the internally threaded sort reason that externally threaded vials will be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although reports have been conducted so as to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and also the debate proceeds.
Yet another consideration which comes into mind when buying cryogenic tubes is definitely the material from which they may be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they be more difficult to warm which may negatively modify the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes will also be contaminated with releasing fluids during the molding process. However, releasing fluids are easy to remove using the proper care, and a few businesses like Axygen are looking at new polished molds that do not require the application of releasing fluids. Glass, on the other hand, warms rapidly but is likewise subjected to fracture due to microchannels which can form inside the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or even violent explosions. Plastic vials are also susceptible to nitrogen penetration but the potential of explosion will not be as great.
Gasketing has also been a concern of some contention in this particular industry. Many cryovials include a washer that keeps the inner pressure of the vial from expelling the tube’s contents when it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas inside the tube is enough to force cells and fluid with the lids of numerous non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is often preferred since the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is additionally used, it features a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, an issue which had been demonstrated as soon as the “O” rings in the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large collection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that you can use at temperatures as low as -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come provided with attached leak proof caps that consist of a dual lip along with a silicon washer. An exclusive ridge on each cap makes handling easier, adding to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in conjunction with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be bought in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and come in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also offers a wide selection of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Included in this are polypropylene tubes, which is often combined with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and so are pressure tested inside a vacuum chamber to ensure the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for usage in lipid fractionation studies. This is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. Among the outstanding options that come with this tube is it is completely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a range of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that happen to be silicone gasketed and guaranteed for usage inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and therefore are certified to become sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, even though the System 100 vials are bound to be leakproof within a microcentrifuge around 8,000 g and through shipment and transport. However, the business warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase may lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have provided CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for pretty much every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it provides developed a substantial catalog of products for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be found in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that can be hermetically sealed. These are typically best suited for your preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like every one of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which can be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction means they are exceptionally durable, and they can be flame sealed or stored having a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a number of polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come designed with a number of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and straightforward-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are offered with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which can be made with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without any mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request of your customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions including iron, chromium, or nickel that are typical constituents of dyes. Each one of the company’s vials is made to snap closed inside a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports have the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system comes with a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees the microtube is aligned from the centrifuge rotor to get re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. posseses an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes which are suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that come in a selection of sizes, shapes, and colours. The consumer has the choice of choosing from a variety of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. Most of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, along with the polypropylene material through which they are constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures along with temperatures and pressures in a autoclave. One of several areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus to in developing its type of products is the requirement for cryogenic vials which contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be bought in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes might be put through a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and each one of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems are a critical part of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they could undergo changes which make them tough to keep trace. Labels could become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes could be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Probably the most popular techniques for containing samples may be the canister and cane. By using this technique, a number of vials are enclosed in just a long aluminum shaft that is certainly submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be easily manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage which may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer technique is usually preferred. Although drawer systems have a tendency to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure time for you to ambient temperatures causing less evaporation from the freezer, and in addition reduces the researcher’s contact with possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are designed to optimize the quantity of space for storing afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The regular inventory configuration is really a cardboard or stainless steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems allow the user to organize as much as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International is an expert in making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Made for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in a multitude of sizes, shapes, and colors to put virtually any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in some models to allow for tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that have storage racks for holding up to 267 microtubes. These drawers can be installed in every upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise several plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are generally keyed to prevent misalignment and supply temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide steel retainer systems works with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They have vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for easy retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for an increasing assortment of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, LNG filling Station has responded with boxes and racks that happen to be constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They have also introduced boxes with telescoping lids as a way to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is probably the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic canisters. The truth is, a lot of its goods are sold as standard accessories with some of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are designed from stainless-steel and will include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless-steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be bought as individual units or as complete racks to use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Almost certainly, the cryogenic products one buys today could be the same ones that can be used for years. An order made today may continue for ten years. Ultimately, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not only buying products for themselves, they may be buying for his or her successors. The consumer should think about what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated on account of improper storage. A bit money which was saved initially by scrimping on vials or freezers may well not seem like the best downside when valuable samples are lost. Inspite of the safeguards integrated to many of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these products a top priority. Appointing a permanent position that accounts for the cryogenic safety in the laboratory’s biological collection is one of the best ways to assure the integrity of those samples.